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Engaging and Inspiring Leaders and Learners

CASS PSD Cisco Webex intro page

Today 90+ participants from around Alberta congregated at PSD Division Office for a day of learning from our resident teacher experts. The morning keynote was headed off by George Couros, over to 9 breakout sessions and a final keynote starring our own students (they stole the show)! Sessions and keynotes concentrated on the Learning and Technology Policy Framework which connect with the work from Inspiring Education. Sessions concentrated on innovative learning environments, resources, BYOD implementation, personalized and authentic student learning opportunities, collaborative and imaginative ways to integrate technology, sharing the PSD story, successes and challenges for access, infrastructure and digital learning environments to name a few. We even had 40 virtual participants through our live webex streaming links.
Apr14_CASS_main groupApr14_CASS_main group2

 

 

 

 

 

Please take a moment to scroll through the session descriptions, tweets and links at http://sfy.co/jgHG. It was definitely a day to celebrate the amazing growth surrounding creating, communicating and collaborating with technology that has occurred over the last couple of years in the Division.

Apr14_CASSstudents

With more student-owned devices making their way into the classroom and with teaching and learning changing, we will continue to plan for the pedagogical, technical and content knowledge uses for technology (think TPACK) by carefully looking at where the Division, the administrators, the teachers and the students are at through rich discussions, pertinent questions, deep and continual professional learning and consistent sharing and networking.

I’d love to know what other schools, school divisions and even teachers are doing to encourage, to innovate and to create authentic learning experiences for their students, please share below and/or tweet using #psd70.

 

Favs in Discovery Edu Canada

DE canada

 

Every month I meet with interested teachers for an afterschool session on the topic of Favorite Activities/Ideas/Resources using Discovery Education Canada. We share successes in using DE Canada and the I share some of my favorites and we look at how these favorites could be integrated into their classrooms.

- Using DE Canada images and input information into Thinglink

Teachers and students are doing amazing things with Thinglink, and interactive online poster, and here are some links.

Our teachers were quite excited about the ability for students to search for images and information within DE Canada and then utilizing that information to create a Thinglink.

- Science TechBook

  • As a Star Discovery Educator I have access to the DE Science TechBook and I was sharing some of the highlights of this book. It is a web-based resource which includes multi-modal content, model lessons, and activity guides. Built-in accessibility features like highlighting text, taking notes, glossary terms (with animations, audio, images), and inclusion of Mythbusters, Planet Earth, Frozen Plant, Life and Human Body video series where appropriate. Although our teachers don’t currently have access to this TechBook, I am wanting them to see the possibilities for students and for learning.

 

 

One Game, One Grade will NEVER define me!

slow stop

Photo Credit: wiring71 via Compfight cc

Over the past many years, our school leaders and teachers have worked towards a more growth-mindset learning environment. We’re following some of the powerful suggestions found:

  • in Carol S. Dweck’s book Mindset
  • by utilizing Growth Mindset Feedback (see the growth minded language frames below)
  • in Susan Scott’s book Fierce Conversations
  • in Rath and Clifton’s expanded edition of How Full is Your Bucket?
  • with The Leader in Me focus

We’ve even revamped our K-9 report card, now in its third year, to ensure that it is more student-focused and emphasizes ‘how’ students learn as opposed to just ‘what’ they learn. This better supports the growth and development of our students.

Yet, what sparked this interest and reflection of having me review how our division is modeling strength-based learning? It was a blog by Principal Doug Enders, specifically his December Message that I just read this morning. And once again, it reminded me the importance of the power of our language and our actions. We can always improve ourselves with hard work and effort.

Here are the Growth Minded Language Frames: (From Mindset Works EducatorKit and PSD70 Inclusive Ed Leads)

As students work on their learning objectives, growth minded language frames (seen below) will allow teachers to ensure students remain persistent, resilient and focused on the process of learning.

When they struggle despite strong effort

  • OK, so you didn’t do as well as you wanted to.  Let’s look at this as an opportunity to learn.

  • What did you do to prepare for this? Is there anything you could do to prepare differently next time?

  • You are not there/here yet.

  • When you think you can’t do it, remind yourself that you can’t do it yet.

  • I expect you to make some mistakes.  It is the kinds of mistakes that you make along the way that tell me how to support you.

  • Mistakes are welcome here!

  • You might be struggling, but you are making progress.  I can see your growth (in these places).

  • Look at how much progress you made on this.  Do you remember how much more challenging this was (yesterday/last week/last year)?

  • Of course it’s tough – school is here to makes our brains stronger!

  • If it were easy you wouldn’t be learning anything!

  • You can do it – it’s tough, but you can; let’s break it down into steps.

  • Let’s stop here and return tomorrow with a fresher brain.

  • I admire your persistence and I appreciate your hard work.  It will pay off.

  • Rome wasn’t built in a day.

  • There is no wrong answer

  • The expert in anything was once a beginner.

  • We learn by doing.

  • It’s about the effort not the product.

  • Try, try again, you have nothing to lose.

  • There is no wrong answer, just a different question.

  • If you think you can or can’t you’re right.

  • We all learn from our mistakes.

  • Let’s just break this down. You did OK on this, let’s build on it.

  • Would you like to look at this? (show example)

  • Not to worry…other people are struggling too.

  • Everyone has strengths in different areas.

  • How else can we look at this?

  • Do you want a partner?

  • Let’s break this down.

  • Einstein (or other) struggled with concepts as well and look at what he accomplished.

When they struggle and need help with strategies

  • Let’s think about how to improve (the accuracy of) this section/paragraph/sentence/word choice/logic/description/problem/calculation.

  • Let me add new information to help you solve this….

  • Here are some strategies to figure this out.

  • Describe your process for completing this task.

  • Let’s do one together, out loud.

  • Let’s practice (skill) so we can move it from our short-term to our long-term memory.

  • Just try – we can always fix mistakes once I see where you are getting held up.

  • Let me explain in another way with different words.

  • What parts were difficult for you? Let’s look at them.

  • Let’s ask —— for advice—s/he may be able to explain/suggest some ideas/recommend some strategies.

  • Let’s write a plan for practicing and/or learning.

  • If you make ______changes, we can reassess your score.  Let’s discuss a plan for you.

  • Show me what you know.

  • You start and I’ll stay with you.

  • Let’s try working with a buddy.

  • Let me show you an example.

  • Teach me how to do this.

  • How can we help you?

  • We learn by doing.

  • Use the references around the room.

  • What is another way we can do this?

  • Show me your thinking.

  • Let’s break it down.

  • Let’s have (student A) and (student B) show each other.

  • Let me show you how I would solve this. I will say my thoughts out loud so that you can see/hear what I’m doing.

  • How can we break this down?

  • Let’s work together.

  • This is what works for me.

When they are making progress

  • Hey that’s a tough problem/task/concept that you’ve been working on for a while.

  • What strategies are you using?

  • I can see a difference in this work compared to ___.  You have really grown (in these areas).

  • I see you using your strategies/tools/notes/etc.  Keep it up!

  • Hey! You were working on this for awhile and you didn’t quit!

  • Your hard work is clearly evident in your process/project/essay/assignment.

  • I really like what you’ve put down here. What else might you add?

  • Look how far you’ve come. (Show example of previous work compared to current.) I wonder how far you will come in another month?

  • I’ve seen growth in your work.

  • What is your next goal?

  • What strategies have worked well for you? Not so well?

  • Good job at using the criteria!

  • Positive communication (video, audio, email, text, notes) with home by student/teacher.

  • Show the Principal the good work you had done.

  • Present your learning to the class.

  • I would like to use your work as an exemplar for other students.

  • Your hard work is making a difference.

  • What has made the difference in your growth?

  • Encourage the perseverance.

  • I am impressed with your determination.

When they succeed with strong effort

  • I am so proud of the effort you put forth to/in/with ______.

  • I am very proud of you for not giving up, and look what you have to show for it!

  • Congratulations – you really used great strategies for studying, managing your time (behavior, etc.).

  • I want you to remember for a moment how challenging this was when you began.

  • Look at how far you have come!

  • All that hard work and effort paid off!

  • The next time you have a challenge like this, what will you do?

  • What choices did you make that you think contributed to your success?

  • It’s exciting to see the difference in your work now when I compare it to your earlier work.

  • I can see you really enjoyed learning ____.

  • That’s awesome, what did you do differently?

  • Look at your success when you try your hardest/do your best work?

  • How did that make you feel?

  • I knew you could do that! Way to go!

  • What was different for you today that made you work so hard?

  • What is your next goal?

  • How can you apply what you’ve just learned to….?

  • You took a risk and look at your results!

  • I would like to share your success with the rest of the class – your effort paid off!

  • You’re a great model.

  • Remember the feeling of success.

  • How can we transfer this effort?

When they succeed easily without effort

  • It’s great that you have that down. Now we need to find something a bit more challenging so you can grow.

  • It looks like your skills weren’t really challenged by this assignment. Sorry for wasting your time!

  • I don’t want you to be bored because you’re not challenging yourself.

  • We need to raise the bar for you now.

  • You’re ready for something more difficult.

  • What skill would you like to work on next?

  • What topic would you like to learn more about next?

  • Wow, look at the gifts you have.

  • Could you be our expert resource on….?How could you extend this? Take further?

  • Please teach this to the rest of the class/group.

  • What would be the next step – how can you take it further?

  • Find someone to help.

  • Create a project/research topic that demonstrates your understanding.

  • How can we generalize this skill to another area?

  • Show them the skill sequence. What’s next?

  • Do you feel you put forth your best effort? How can you improve on this?

  • Intentionally praise the effort not the product.

  • How can we take this in a different direction?

  • What would you like to do now?

What other resources are you using to promote a strengths-based learning environment? It’s always great to hear what other administrators, teachers and parents are framing their conversations and learning.

 

Active Learning in Social Studies, Part 5

learning

This is the last of a series looking at formative assessment learning opportunities within Social Studies.

Activating Students as Owners of Their Own Learning

Learners create learning. Therefore if we want to engage students more deeply in their learning, we must activate them to become owners of their own learning. The process of having students self-reflect can be uncomfortable at first for both the student and teacher, but the benefits are well worth the effort. Students need time and multiple opportunities for their reflections to be insightful and meaningful.

Ideas:

1. Colored Cups or Disks

- students are given 2-3 colored cups (R,Y,G) or a CD sized disk with R on one side, G on the other

- students use the cups/CD to indicate whether an activity/lesson is moving too fast, has a question or completely understands

- teacher is able to check for understanding, work with specific students, etc.

2. Talk Partners

- turn and talk with a partner about 3 new things they have learning or what they found easy or what they found difficult or a connection they made to another concept (talk topic determined by teacher)

- ensure to be specific as to how to talk (each partner takes one minute while the other listens) and use a visible timer

-

3. Learning Logs

- at the end of a lesson, students complete a learning log entry using a variety of prompts.

- self- reflection provides the teacher with insights as to how students learn, what they need for more support and on the growth students have show from one assignment to the next.

- easily done with a Google Form

- use Socrative for responses

- sample prompts include: the easiest part for me was…., the hardest part for me was…., one thing that I learned…., one thing that I could use more help with is…., in the past I had difficulty with ___ now I have learned…..

4. Learning Portfolios

- organized to show an incremental view of ability, not just the latest and best work

- student can use work samples to reflect on their growth and determine goals for future learning

- Google Drive

- network account

5. Become an Expert

- Jigsaw a piece of text, a chapter or even a unit of study

- students are divided into groups of 4 and the text is broken into 4 pieces

- assign each student one piece of the text

- students then break out into similar text groups (all have same text) and become familiar with it, discussion occurs, main points are written up and this information will be shared with their original group

- return to original jigsaw group

- each ‘expert’ will then share their piece of the text, student encouraged to ask questions for clarification

- notes are made by each student on the material shared

- give a formative/summative assessment

6. Class Learning website/ebook

- students develop a daily update of the class notes (a different scribe/day) online

- additional media can be added such as video clips, links, audio, etc. related to the topic

7. Info/Text Processing

- A-B Each Teach: paired reading strategy where each will read a segment of a larger selection and prepare to teach the information. About 10 minutes for reading and preparing to teach. Each partner should include a summary statement, key points, concrete examples.

- Focused Reading: compare and contrast background knowledge. Annotations used – Got it,

Important, Clarification needed. Assign a text passage for reading and marking. After reading, organize pairs or quartets to share and compare their responses.

- It Says, I Say, And So (one of my favorite strategies for text and videos)

Purpose: to support inference-making, to make the inferential process explicit, to provide a method for checking that interpretations are based on information in the text/video.

Implementation:

1. Students create three columns (or teacher gives/sends a template to them) with It Says, I Say, And So.

2. Model the strategy a few times. On the board/screen, create the three columns. Use a sample text and pose 3-4 questions that will require students to go beyond the facts and to make inferences and draw conclusions. Read a portion of text and then record in the first column exactly what the text ays – a sentence or phrase. In the second column, using context clues, connections and predictions, speculate on what the sentence means. In the third column, draw a logical conclusion based on the quotation and speculation from columns one and two.

ex. Prologue from Romeo and Juliet

It Says

-    Actual text

I Say

–  Overall understanding/summary

And So

–  Inference

Two households, both alike in dignity/In fair Verona, where we lay our scene/From ancient grudge break to new mutiny.

It means that two families who are well known in Verona and known to each other have some sort of long-standing animosity, and something is going to happen to make it flare up again.

The play will probably be about a disagreement between the two families, I wonder if it means just the immediate families, or their friends and servants (their households) and distant relatives too? And “mutiny” sounds as if there’s a group on at least one side who will disobey orders.

3. You are looking for students to make predictions, make meaningful inferences, use context clues to read strategically and to determine what words are critical to meaning.

4. Collect info.

Name________________________

It Says/I Say/And So Reading Strategy

It Says

-    Actual text

I Say

–  Overall understanding/summary

And So

–  Inference

And so….

Data Collection for It Says, I Say, And So

Student Name: _________________

Indicators: LS – with lots of support, SS – some support, I – independently

Reading Strategy

What am I looking for? Observe whether students:

Make predictions

·         Predictions that are plausible

·         Refers back to text to justify plausibility of prediction

Make meaningful inferences

·         Inferences are plausible

·         Refers back to text to justify plausibility of inference

 

Active Learning in Social Studies, Part 4

ye seoh

Activating Students as Instructional Resources

When activating students:

  • teachers must have the belief that ability is incremental

  • regular structured learning opportunities are set

  • modelling successful working and learning is important

Ideas for activating students:

1. Traffic lighting

- green, yellow and red marks on a work sample mean…Green=meets criteria/understand, Yellow=partially meets criteria/not sure, Red=doesn’t meet criteria/ do not understand.

- students can do this in peer partner groups

- rich discussion occurs when discussing ways to improve the work

2. Two by Fours

- students work in pairs to identify questions/problems they could not do or didn’t understand on their assignment

- pairs join another pair and share their discussions, answers and/or solutions

- any unanswered questions are brought to the teacher for entire group discussion

3. End of Session Questions

- students in small groups are checking their understanding, anything unanswered is given to the teacher

- adaptation of material occurs

4. C3B4ME

5. Investigating an Image

- the power of images and symbols – video clip

- using images and pictures helps students activate and building upon prior knowledge BEFORE they read

- it also helps them develop the skill of inferencing.

- making inferences without text as a barrier, supports all our students, particularly reluctant readers. For many students, text is the barrier to the development of this skill of inferencing, not their ability to learn the skill itself.

- additionally, if students can work with someone else during the process, the learning increases even more. Pictures really lend themselves to group work, because our reluctant readers can engage as deeply as their strong reader partners.

- the right picture can replace written text- do we need to have students read everything in the textbook? Can we find images that can help students learn the same content?

W5 Questions

Inferences

(What is your answer?)

Criteria for

Plausible and imaginative INFERENCES: the inferences go beyond the obvious conclusions and are supported with several pieces of evidence found in the image, or based on other known facts

Evidence / Observations

(Clues from the picture or other known facts to support your inferences)

Criteria for

Accurate and relevant OBSERVATIONS:

the evidence accurately describes the relevant details in the image

A.   WHO is in the image?

Ideas to think about:

Person’s role or occupation?

Social status?

If several people, what is their relationship to each other?

B.   WHAT are they doing?

Ideas to think about:

What actions?

What objects are used?

What is the focus of attention?

C.   WHERE does the image take place?

Ideas to think about:

In what region or country?

In what setting (rural or urban)?

What is the terrain?

Are there landmarks?

D.   WHEN did it take place?

Ideas to think about:

What time of day?

What time of year?

What year or decade?

What historical period?

E. WHY is the action happening?

Ideas to think about:

What reason for this event?

What bigger purpose?

Summary Explanation:

Criteria for fully developed EXPLANATION: the explanation includes suggestions with appropriate detail for each of the 5W questions.

Assessing the Explanation

Powerful Images can be found at:

  • The Big Picture news stories in photographs.

  • Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons is a media file repository making available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content (images, sound and video clips) to everyone.

  • Earth Album explore the earth in photos. Some of the most stunning photos in the world courtesy of Google maps and Flickr.

  • Flickr Creative Commons Many Flickr users have chosen to offer their work under a Creative Commons license, and you can browse or search through content under each type of license.

  • 2Learn Image Database

  • Discovery Education Canada

  • LearnAlberta.ca

  • Fotopedia Heritage iOS app

Example

 

Active Learning in Social Studies, Part 3

This is part of a series of five posts discussing formative assessment.

Providing Feedback that Moves Learners Forward

Feedback

  • is the means by which teachers enable students to ‘close the gap’ in order to move learning forward and improve their performance

  • is effective when learners know how it relates to the learning outcome and then given time to make changes

  • can be provided through a variety of ways

  • should mostly cause thinking!

Ruth Sutton recommends gathering feedback through 1/3 approach:

1/3 Deep Feedback – specific teacher comments on what’s working and not

1/3 Impression Feedback – feedback to get an impression on where the class is at on one area of the criteria, responsibility of the work is on the students

1/3 Peer Feedback – used with shorter tasks that assist students to develop a greater understanding through discussion of the criteria

Ideas for using feedback to gather evidence of student learning:

1. Plus, Minus, Equals

- student work is marked in relation to previous work

- if the work is of the same quality, it receives =

- if it is better, +

- if it is not as good, -

2. Highlighters

- two colors chosen by students, one for what’s working and the other color for what needs improving.

- teacher highlight each students working relation to the criteria

- students work with a partner to discuss why parts were highlighted and then spend time making improvements

- easily done within a Google Doc

- also the Kaizena voice comments chrome app

3. Two Stars and a Wish (two successes and a suggestion for growth)

- peer feedback

 

Active Learning in Social Studies, Part 2

This is the second of a series of five posts on different formative assessment strategies.

Engineering Effective Discussions that Elicit Evidence of Learning

Good questions:

  • require learners to evaluate, synthesize, analyze

  • require learners to construct their own answers and make their own meaning from information gathered

  • require time to engage learners in real-life problem solving

  • lend themselves well to cross curricular investigations

Questions should cause thinking and provide information that informs the teacher about what to do next.

Ideas for engineering effective discussions that elicit evidence of learning:

1. No Hands Up

- every student is responsible for providing an answer

- turn and talk with a partner

- if answer is incorrect, it is OK as it can be used to clarify misunderstandings. After a few other students respond, come back to original student and ask “which of those answers do you most agree with…”

2. Whiteboards

- small whiteboards can be used (purchased or made)

- tablets such as iPads with an app like ShowMe, DoodleBuddy or Educreations

- glossy page protectors with white cardboard inside

- quickly grasp student understanding and adjust how they move forward

3. ABCD cards

- a question is provided to the class along with 4 answers

- in small groups of 2-4 students discuss their answer and why

- one student holds up the letter of the correct answer

- teacher checks for consensus and ensure a discussion from various groups

- cards can also be used where there are no correct answers, just different views

4. Timeline

- a visual with ideas

- 3D paper flip chart

- Smart Notebook timeline

- Notebook flip tiles

- readwritethink.org timeline share with students from another country via Skype

- http://www.thinglink.com/http://www.thinglink.com/learn for Wright brothers example)

- Using digital maps in a social studies class would greatly enrich every aspect of the curriculum, from geographic and map-reading lessons to demographic statistics from census reports. (Google Earth, Community Walk)

5. Infographics

- Piktochart – infographic creator

- Discovery Education Board Builder – interactive poster

6. Problematizing in-class activities

Activity

Mini challenge

Sample criteria

Titles, headlines or captions

- Create a great headline.

- Which of these is the best title for the paragraph/video?

- Revise the supplied caption for the picture.

  • informative

  • catchy/intriguing

  • concise

  • playful

Main idea

- What are the five most important ideas in this paragraph/video?

- Prepare an effective summary of the chapter.

  • relevant to the topic or issue

  • contains key ideas

  • concisely noted

  • written in own words

Supporting details

- Decide which one of the four paragraphs is bogus.

- Which of the following statements are likely true(false) given the information provided?

  • seems plausible

  • consistent with other information

Perspective talking

- Rewrite the story from another character’s point of view.

- Draw a picture (describe the situation) from another point of view.

  • true to the facts

  • plausible

  • shows insight into character

For example, great a great headline for the article below using the sample criteria above.

HEADLINE:___________________________________________________

This year’s winter coat offerings have gone colourful, displacing the plainer palettes of black, beige and grey traditionally associated with cold-weather dressing. These coats pop with bright shades of blue, yellow, pink and even orange, breathing new life into old wardrobe staples.

“People are naturally drawn to colour — a bright pop of it seen walking down the street on a dreary winter day is a sight for sore eyes,” says local fashion publicist Janis Galloway, also known for her style blog, Dress Me Dearly.

“When you live in a place where it’s winter for six to eight months of the year, nothing seems more appealing than a bright jacket,” adds Ashley Antonio, a store manager at Anthropologie’s West Edmonton Mall location. “Even if it’s freezing outside, you’d be surprised how throwing on a bright topper can make you smile and instantly lift your mood.”

From oversized coats and trenches to moto jackets and even cape coats, these pieces set our otherwise drab environment aglow.

“Many of us tend to choose the ‘safe’ option and go with standard black, so you really notice someone when they’re wearing a bright colour or fun pattern,” says Galloway.

“A bright coat can uplift your winter blues and bring your basic items to a whole new level,” adds Melanie Morais, fashion blogger behind Born Lippy. “I personally love bright outerwear because it can elevate an otherwise boring outfit and make you really stand out.”

From Derek Lam’s electric blue coats to Stella McCartney’s unapologetically orange options, there’s no shortage of colourful outerwear in the higher-end of the sartorial spectrum. But for those unsure of the trend’s staying power, there are many affordable alternatives at your disposal as well.

“Since bright outerwear is more of a fun piece than an investment, I would turn to trendy stores such as H&M, Forever 21 and ASOS,” Morais advises. “Even vintage stores would be a great place to look.”

Other local retailers like J.Crew, Simons, Club Monaco, Topshop and Zara offer eye-catching options in various shapes and sizes, as do several local boutiques.

“Coup Garment Boutique currently has this stunning raglan coat on sale by Edmonton-born designer Angelique Chmielewski,” Galloway says. “Bamboo Ballroom carries a limited number of coats each season, but they are always unique and often in bright colours and fun patterns.”

Regardless of where you source your vibrant topper, Antonio warns against overly trendy colours. Opt instead for vibrant takes on beloved hues.

“Since outerwear is more expensive, I’d choose something chic and classic,” she says. “Turquoise and purple are universally flattering, timeless options.”

For those wary of injecting colour into their wardrobes, the experts agree that it’s a good idea to add neutral notes as well. “I think a bright coat looks best when it’s paired with something neutral,” says Morais.

“Don’t add too many shades to the mix as they can clash; let the coat be the focal point,” says Galloway, adding that white or black accessories can be the perfect way to highlight vibrant outerwear.

As with any garment, pay attention to what style and silhouette is most flattering to your body type when selecting a coat, considering all aspects from the materials to the finishes.

“A bright red puffer jacket is not going to look good on everyone — pay attention to the coat length, tailoring and how it complements your body,” Galloway advises.

“The cut is much more important than the colour,” Antonio agrees. “Choosing a jacket that nips in at the waist and is mid-length generally works on all body types.”

With black and navy outerwear having overpowered Edmonton’s winter landscape for so many years, how much staying power do these rainbow brights have?

“We will be seeing crazier colour patterns and many more colour options in outerwear in the coming seasons,” Galloway predicts.

Now share your headline with your small group and then with the rest of the class. Refer to the sample criteria to ensure that your headline is appropriate. Once some of the headlines that were created have been shared, you can show them the original headline. Compare the original headline with theirs using the criteria.

7. Critical Challenges

Not only do these exemplars support promising practices in teaching through a skills embedded, critical inquiry approach, they also support the assessment of skills. These are found easily in LearnAlberta by searching for “aac”.

- Featuring Local Heroes (Gr. 2)

- What Does Canada Look Like? (Gr. 5)

- Understanding Our Rights and Responsibilities (Gr. 6)

- Great City-states of the Renaissance (Gr. 8)

- Government Intervention in the Economy:  How Far Should It Go?  (Gr. 9)

- Framing Effective Foreign Policy (Gr. 11)

- Challenges to Liberalism (Gr. 12)

 
 
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